The Historicity of Biblical Israel (Kamal Salibi) pdf, epub, doc

The Historicity of Biblical Israel ePub and PDF Available
The author wrote a second edition of this book based on a letter he received from Anthony Lias. The research of this book was done in connection with seminar courses which he gave in the Department of Religion at Smith College, Northampton, Mass. in 1993, and in the Department of History and Archaeology at the American University of Beirut in 1994. Detailed criticism of the first two chapters were offered by George J. Brooke of the Department of Religion and Theology at the University of Manchester. Linguistic criticism were offered by Samuel Bolozky of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst on the studies of Samuel text.

Some highlights of the book:
1- "What (biblical Hebrew) language was called originally remains unknown."
2- "Much, if not all, of the Canaanite material of the Bible, was redacted, compiled, and in some cases authored, by scholars and writers whose day-to-day language was Aramaic, not the Biblical language."
3- "Biblical Canaanite came to be called Hebrew because the Israelites, in their time, had considered themselves a people of Hebrew stock."
4- "Yet not only Biblical Canaanite, but also Aramaic, may well have been signified by the term Hebrew."
5- "To Flavius Josephus .. Hebrew meant both Biblical Canaanite and Aramaic."
6- "This leaves Arabic as the only Semitic language whose spoken use has probably continued without interruption from pre-historical times to the present."
7- "Arabic in its classical as in its dialectal forms retains a livingvocabulary immeasurably vaster than the known vocabulary of other languages of the Semitic family. Hence the preeminent importance of Arabic for establishing the lexicon of related languages which are no longer alive, among them the Hebrew of the Bible."
8- "When the Greeks borrowed the alphabet from the Phoenicians, they gave different phonetical values to the characters for Semitic consonants for which they had no use, making no less than seven of these characters represent vowels: hence the Greek alpha, epsilon, eta, iota, omicron, upsilon and omega. Thus, for the first time, an alphabet was developed to make the written word phonetically readable, at some sacrifice to keeping it etymologically intelligible."
9- "By the time the compilation of the Hebrew Bible was completed, few Jews who were not scholars could still understand its language, their speech having become overwhelmingly Aramaic."
10- "That much of the Received Text of the Bible involves a relatively late and heavily redacted Jewish collage of older Israelite material is a matter on which scholars today are more or less in agreement."
11- "The discipline of Biblical scholarship continues to move in circles, basing assumption on assumption, and awaiting a deus ex machina to provide it with the answers."
12- "Recourse to the Arabic lexicon, as to the known lexicon of other related languages, is not only advisable and legitimate, but actually mandatory for the interpretation or reconsideration of the Hebrew."
13- "The very concept of an 'indigenous Israel' during the period between the twelfth and tenth centuries is dismissed as 'historically meaningless', Thompson 403-4."
14- "In the opinion of Thompson, it has become 'increasingly necessary to abandon the use of biblical historiography as a viable source for our own historical writing .. We must be ready to radically alter and consciously distance ourselves from all presuppositions that have been imposed on us by the biblical account'."
15- "Archaeological findings in the Jordan valley and the Palestinian highlands to the west have ceased to be accepted as evidence for Israelite conquests and settlement of these lands at any period in antiquity. And no archaeological or epigraphic trace has been found to substantiate the Biblical account of a Hebrew sojourn of any length in Egypt; earlier attempts to trace the assumed Israelite wanderings in the Sinai peninsula, and in the steppe lands east of Wadi Araba and the Dead Sea, are now generally dismissed as untenable."
16- "Yet not one proven remnant of Solomon's building achievements has been found in the Palestinian city of Jerusalem, despite more than a century of systematic excavation and sophisticated archaeological soundings; the famous Wailing Wall of Palestinian Jerusalem is known to be a remnant not of Solomon's temple, but of the one built by King Herod the Great of Judaea in early Roman times."

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